Translation Definitions and Clarification:

Remember translation expands between 10% to 25% from one language to another.
An average page contains between 250 (12 Font) and 400 (8 font) words. A translator works at the rate of between 1,500 and 2,000 words per day. That is about 5 to 8 pages. Checking and polishing the work is completed at the rate of 6000 words. Between 15 to 24 pages per day.
Due to the complexity of some documents the proofreader needs to spend detailed time before the document is ready. Proofreading takes the same amount of time as checking and polishing do.
Creation of regularly used words and phrases. This reduces the need for research or double word usage allowing consistent translation.
The biggest cause of dispute over a translation document is undoubtedly style. Everybody has an opinion on style and everybody is entitled to an opinion but not everybody is an expert. Remember grammatical error is different than grammatical preference.
Machine versus Human:
For now machines and translation memory software can be used for spell checking and helping translation to be consistent, but translation is still an art that needs to be done by human knowledge and professional skill. The team involved in the project addreses not just language barrier but also cultural nuances.
End of translation:
Does the final document reads as close to the original text in the target language? Was all the original text translated? Was the terminology in the translated document checked with the terminology in the reference material? Was the translation material appropriate for the target audience? Was the spell check carried out?
Interpretation- Consecutive:
The interpreter listens to what the other person says and then translates in the target language immediately afterwards.
Interpretation- Simultaneous:
 In the scene the interpreter listens and translates simultaneously. This takes tremendous concentration.


Is the translation and condensed interpretation of the dialogue displayed as text overlaid on the video. Subtitling is place on the bottom of the pictures and the written phrases posted on the screen have to be well coordinated by time and compression to the actual event on the screen. The viewer can select to display the subtitles or avoid them.

Line 21

The standard for the USA closed captioning uses Line 21 of the VBI-lines for transmission rather than DVB subtitling European standards. The data for Line 21 allows for recording and playback on a consumer VCR.

Foreign language subtitling

When Teletext and DVB subtitling or a similar method is used, several languages can be transmitted simultaneously on one channel. Using either a decoder and a character generator at the head end of a cable TV system, at a local transmitter or in viewer's decoder (DVB), the subtitles can be displayed in the selected language.


Is more appropriate when the speaker doesn't appear on the screen. If this is the case, a new translated audio is added while the original voice and language are retained in the background.


Is used when the speaker is on the screen. When the shots are close, for example, facial shots of the speaker, dubbing is not recommended. When this is the case we need special manuscript so it could be translated and adapted for the lip movement on the screen.


Subtitles can be displayed using different fonts. Subtitles should distract as little as possible from the picture. Line 21 and Teletext normally do not allow for custom fonts but have to rely on built-in decoder fonts in the TV.


Video and audio are both synchronized to ensure that sound matches motion. Multilingual Planet produces media with video/audio, sound effects, overlays, and art cards.


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